A urinary glucose test is a fast and simple way to verify unusually high levels of glucose in the urine. Glucose is one type of sugar your body needs and uses as a source of energy. Your body transforms carbs that you eat into glucose. (1)
Excess glucose in your body may be a sign of a health problem. If you are not being treated and your glucose levels remain high, you may experience serious complications.
Urinary glucose testing is taking a urine sample. Once you have provided your sample, a small cardboard device called a measuring dipstick will measure your glucose level. (3)
It will change colour depending on how much glucose is in your urine. If your urine contains a medium to high amount of glucose, your physician will carry out additional tests to determine the underlying cause.
The most common reason for increased glucose levels is diabetes, a condition that affects your body’s capacity to deal with glucose levels. It is important to watch your blood glucose levels if you have been diagnosed with diabetes or have symptoms of pre-diabetes.
Some of the symptoms include:
- excessive thirst
- blurred vision
Without treatment, diabetes has the potential to cause long-term complications, including nerve damage and renal failure.
Why is a urine glucose test performed?
A urine glucose test was conducted to detect diabetes. Additionally, people with diabetes may use urinary glucose testing as a means of monitoring the degree of sugar control, or the effectiveness of treatments.
Urine tests were formerly the primary type of test used to measure glucose levels in potentially diabetic people. But they are less frequent now that blood tests are more accurate and easier to use.
In certain cases, your physician may order a urine test to see if you have kidney problems or have a urinary tract infection (UTI).
How do I prepare for a urine glucose test?
It is important to inform your physician about prescription medications, non-prescription medications or supplements you are taking. Some medicines may influence the results of the test. But you should never stop taking your medicine unless your physician tells you to.
How is a urine glucose test performed?
Your physician will perform the urinary glucose test in his or her office or diagnostic lab. A physician or laboratory technician will hand you a plastic cup with a cover and ask you to provide a urine sample. Once you arrive at the bathroom, wash your hands and use a wet wipe to clean the area around your genitals.
Allow a small stream of urine to run through the toilet to cleanse the urinary tract. Next, place the cup under the urine spray. Once you have obtained the sample a half cup is usually enough for urinating into the toilet. Carefully place the cover over the cup, being careful not to touch the inside of the cup.
Provide the sample to the correct person. They will be using a device called a dipstick to measure glucose levels. Dipstick tests can usually be carried out on site, so you may be able to get your results within minutes.
Normal glucose levels in the urine range from 0 to 0.8 mmol/L (millimoles per litre). A higher measure may indicate a medical condition. Diabetes is the leading cause of high glucose levels. Your physician will carry out a simple blood test to confirm the diagnosis.
In some cases, a large amount of glucose in the urine may be caused by pregnancy. Pregnant women are likely to have higher urinary glucose levels than non-pregnant women. Women who are already getting higher levels of glucose in their urine should be thoroughly screened for gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
High levels of glucose in the urine can also be the result of kidney glycosuria. It is an uncommon condition where the kidneys release glucose into the urine. Kidney glycosuria may increase glucose levels in the urine even with normal blood sugar levels.
If your urinary blood sugar test results are abnormal, your physician will conduct additional tests to determine the cause. During this period, it is particularly important that you be honest with your physician.
Ensure they have a list of each prescription or non-prescription drug you are taking. Certain medicines may interfere with blood sugar and urine. You should also report it to your physician if you are experiencing a lot of stress, because it may increase your glucose levels.
Diabetes and the urine glucose test
The most common reason for high blood glucose levels in urine is diabetes. Diabetes is a group of diseases which affects how the body deals with glucose. A hormone known as insulin usually Controls how much glucose is in the bloodstream. (3)
In diabetics, however, either the body is not producing enough insulin or the insulin produced is not working properly. This results in the accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream. Diabetes symptoms may include:
- blurry vision
- excessive thirst or hunger
- frequent urination
- dry mouth
- cuts healing slowly
Type 1 diabetes
There are 2 major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disorder which develops when the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells within the pancreas. This means that the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin.
It leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes need to use insulin every day to manage their disease.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition which generally develops over time. Many people talk about diabetes in adulthood, but it can affect children. In people suffering from type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin and the cells develop resistant to its effects.
This means that cells are incapable of absorbing and stocking glucose. Rather, glucose remains in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is most common among overweight people with sedentary lifestyles.
Both types of diabetes may be treated correctly. It’s usually about taking drugs and changing your way of life like exercise and better nutrition. If you receive a diagnosis of diabetes, your physician can refer you to a nutritionist.
Nutritionists can help you understand how to better monitor your glucose levels by eating the right foods.