Hematuria means you have blood in your urine.
A variety of conditions and illnesses can lead to hematuria. Such diseases include infections, renal diseases, cancer and rare blood disorders. Blood can be seen or in so small quantities that it cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Any blood in the urine can be a sign of a severe health problem, even if it occurs only once. Ignoring hematuria can make serious illnesses such as cancer and kidney disease worse, That’s why you should see your doctor as soon as possible.
Your doctor can check your urine and carry out imaging tests to identify the cause of the hematuria and develop a treatment plan.
Types of hematuria?
Hematuria has two major types:
gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria.
If there is sufficient blood in your urine then spots can be visible to the naked eye or the urine appears pink or red, you have a «gross hematuria».
When you cannot see the blood in your urine as the amount is too low, you have “microscopic hematuria.” Only a laboratory test that detects blood or that examines a urine sample under a microscope can demonstrate microscopic hematuria.
What are the causes of hematuria?
There are numerous possible causes of haematuria. Sometimes blood can come from a different source.
Blood may look like it’s in the urine when it actually comes from the vagina in women, ejaculate in men, or men’s and women’s stools. If the blood is actually in your urine, there are different possible causes.
Infection is a common cause of hematuria. This infection may be present in your urinary tract, bladder, or kidney.
Infection happens when bacteria rise up the urethra, The tube that takes urine off the bladder. It may enter the bladder and even the kidneys. It is a common cause of pain and frequent urination. It can be a gross or microscopic hematuria.
Another additional reason for blood in urine is that stones are present in the bladder or kidney. They are crystals that develop from the minerals in your urine. They may grow within your kidneys or bladder.
Large stones may cause blockage, which often results in hematuria and significant pain.
Amongst middle-aged and older men, A fairly common cause of hematuria is prostatic enlargement. It is located just below the bladder and near the urethra.
As the prostate expands, as is generally the case for older men, He’s compressing the ureter. This causes urinary problems and can prevent the bladder from fully draining. This may lead to a bladder infection (UTI) with blood in the urine.
One less common reason for the development of blood in urine is kidney disease. An infected or inflamed kidney may cause hematuria. It may occur alone or as part of another illness, such as diabetes.
For children aged 6 to 10, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis can cause hematuria. This disorder may develop within one to two weeks following an untreated streptococcus infection. Formerly common, it is rare today because antibiotics can rapidly cure streptococcus infections.
Bladder, kidney and prostate cancer can also result in blood in the urine. It’s a symptom that typically happens in advanced cancer cases. Maybe there are no early indications of a problem.
Some medications may result in hematuria. These include:
- blood thinning agents like heparin and warfarin (Coumadin)
- cyclophosphamide, which is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer
Less common causes
There are some other reasons for hematuria that are not so common. Rare blood disorders such as sickle cell disease, Alport syndrome and hemophilia may also cause blood to develop in the urine.
Intense exercise or a blow to the kidneys may also result in blood to be visible in the urine.
How does the cause of hematuria get diagnosed?
If you go to your physician for hematuria, They will ask you how much blood and when you will see it while urinating. They will want to know how often you urinate, any pain you experience, whether you detect blood clots and which drugs you are taking.
Your physician will then perform a physical examination and collect a sample of your urine for analysis. Your urinalysis can confirm blood and detect bacteria if infection is causing it.
Your physician may request imaging tests such as a CT scan, which uses radiation to create an image of your body.
Another possibility that your doctor may want to perform is a cystoscopy. In this test, a little tube is used to send a camera into the urethra and into the bladder. Using the camera, your doctor can examine the inside of your bladder and urethra to determine the cause of your hematuria.
When do I need to get medical attention?
Because some of the reasons for blood in urine are serious, You need to get yourself treated as soon as possible, when you first see. You don’t have to ignore even a small amount of blood in your urine.
Consult your doctor or health care provider, too, if you don’t see blood in your urine but have frequent, difficult or painful urinations, abdominal pain or kidney pain. It could be evidence of microscopic hematuria.
Get emergency help if you can’t urinate, see blood clots during urination, or There is blood in the urine with at least one of the following symptoms:
- pain in the side, back or abdominal area.
What is the treatment of hematuria?
The reason for your hematuria will determine which type of treatment you get.
If an infection, like a UTI, is responsible for your hematuria, your health care provider will recommend antibiotics for killing the bacteria that cause the infection.
Hematuria due to enlarged kidney stones may be painful if left untreated. Prescription drugs and therapies can help you free stones.
Your health care professional may recommend that you use a process called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to split up the stones.
ESWL is about using sound waves to break kidney stones into tiny pieces that can pass into your urine. The procedure usually lasts about one hour and can be carried out under light anesthesia.
Your physician can also use an scope to remove your kidney stones. They do this by running a thin tube called a ureteroscope From the urethra to the bladder. The scope is equipped with a camera that allows the location of stones.
Your medical practitioner will use special tools to capture and remove stones. If the stones are big, they will be shattered into small pieces before being removed.
If a prostatic enlargement causes your hematuria, your healthcare professional may recommend drugs, such as alpha blockers or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. In certain cases, surgery can be an option.
What are the complications related to hematuria?
Certain causes of blood in urine are serious, Therefore, you should check with your health care provider if you experience this symptom.
If tthe symptom is cancer-related, Ignoring it may cause tumours to progress to such an extent that treatment is difficult. Non-treated infections may eventually lead to kidney failure.
Treatment may help reduce symptoms if the cause of hematuria is prostatic hypertrophy. Ignoring this may cause discomfort due to the urgency of urination frequently, severe pain and even cancer.
What can I do to prevent hematuria?
To prevent hematuria is to prevent underlying causes:
- To prevent infections, drink sufficient water each day, urine immediately after sex, and maintain good hygiene.
- Avoid pebbles by drinking plenty of water and avoiding excess salt and some foods such as spinach and rhubarb.
- Prevent bladder cancer by not smoking, Keep your chemical exposure under control and drink plenty of water.