Bladder Stones: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Bladder calculus (Stone) A mass of minerals found in the bladder. They develop when concentrated urinary minerals crystallize and form stones. This is often the case when you have difficulty emptying your bladder completely. (1)

Over 90 percent urine is just water. The rest includes minerals, like salt, and waste, like protein. Concentrated urine can vary in color from dark amber to brown depending on the types of waste and minerals that are contained.

Concentrated urine is often due to dehydration or Not being able to Drain the bladder completely. This may be a result of an enlarged prostate, bladder problems, or urinary tract infections (UTIs). In the absence of treatment, bladder stones may cause infections and other complications.

What are the symptoms of bladder stones?

Typical symptoms for bladder stones include:

  • frequent urination, mostly at night.
  • lower abdomen pain.
  • burning feeling or pain in the urethra during urination.
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • incontinence, or unable to control urination.

Who is at risk for bladder stones?

The majority of people who develop bladder stones are men in particular older men with prostate issues. Males aged 80 years present a much higher risk than younger males. However, even 30-year-old males living in industrialised countries can develop stones. People in those areas are most likely to have high-fat and high-sugar diets.

Children living in developing countries also suffer from bladder stones. They often lack access to sufficient water to remain hydrated and their diet tends to be poor.

What causes bladder stones?

Bladder stones formation can be a secondary symptom of an underlying urinary system problem. Conditions which can contribute to bladder stones include:


Bacteria and other organisms may lead to infections of the bladder or inflammation. Urinary tract infections are a common cause of bladder stones.

Even though males develop more bladder stones, females have more bladder infections than males. Female have shorter ureters, so there’s a shorter way for bacteria to get into their bladder.

Damaged urethra

Your urethra can be injured or damaged as a result of disease, disease or trauma. It can shrink as a result of infection and block the flow of urine leaving your body.

Enlarged prostate gland

Your prostate surrounds your urethra, the slender tube that carries urine from your bladder while urinating. When the prostate gets enlarged, It may press against the ureter and interfere with urination.

Neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder is a condition that affects the nerves that carry messages from the brain into the muscles of the bladder. Injuries or damage to these nerves can make it impossible for your brain to tell your bladder muscles to contract and dilate to urinate. This may result in the urine staying in your bladder and forming stones.

Weak bladder

The walls of your bladder can weaken in certain regions and form pockets that swell outwards. Urine is able to collect and store in these pouches.

Kidney stones

Small stones may form in your kidneys and lower the ureters, two tubes which transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. This may result in bladder problems.

Although kidney stones differ in their development, they may turn into bladder stones when they arrive at the bladder.

Small kidney stones can pass without pain in your urine, but others may become large enough for removal by a doctor.

Risk Factors

  • Age and gender
  • Bladder outlet obstruction
  • Paralysis

How are bladder stones diagnosed?

If you experience urination-related complications or symptoms associated with bladder stones, talk to your physician. They will probably give you a physical examination before further diagnosis tests. If you are a man, your physique may include checking if you have prostate enlargement.

Diagnostic tests include the following:


This test is used to verify your urinalysis for crystallization, infection, and other abnormalities.

Spiral CT scan

This type of CT scanner makes it possible to detect complications in the bladder or elsewhere in the body. It’s faster and more accurate than a regular computed tomography.


A pelvis ultrasound uses sound waves to create images from inside your body. These images will help your physician check for stones in your bladder.

X-rays and intravenous pyelogram

Radiographs show the interior of the bladder and most of the defects that may be present.

During the IV pyelogram, a colouring agent is injected into your veins, which circulates through your blood vessels until it reaches your bladder. The colorant highlights any unusual formation, then radiographs are taken from the results highlighted.

X-rays can not show every stone in your bladder and because of that, these diagnostic tests are not used for bladder calculations very often now.

How are bladder stones treated?

If your physician discovers that you have bladder stones, they can perform a cystolitholapaxy. In this procedure, laser power or ultrasonic waves are used to break your stones down into smaller pieces for removal.

If the stones do not decompose with this procedure, removing surgery may be required.


The prospects for treating bladder stones are good. After treatment, you can help prevent bladder problems by drinking large amounts of water (at least 8 glasses or 64 ounces per day). Also, look for a quick cure for UTI symptoms or other urinary problems.

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